Biopsy results are ready in 1 to 3 days. The sample is put into a solution that breaks down its calcium before it is stained. The bone marrow sample is often treated with special dyes (stains) to see any changes in the blood cells more clearly.
Healthy adult bone marrow contains yellow fat cells, connective tissue, and red marrow that produces blood. Bone marrow is evaluated for cellularity, megakaryocyte production, M:E ratio, differential (classification of blood forming cells), iron content, lymphoid, bone, and connective tissue cells, and bone and blood vessel abnormalities. The bone marrow of a healthy infant is primarily red (75–100% cellularity), but the distribution of blood forming cells is very different than adult marrow. Consequently, age-related normal values must be used.
Microscopic examination of bone marrow can reveal leukemia, granulomas, myelofibrosis, myeloma, lymphoma, or metastatic cancers, bone marrow infection, and bone disease. Bone marrow evaluation is usually not needed to diagnose anemia, but may be useful in cases that cannot be classified by other means.
If the resuls are normal, it signifies :
- the marrow has normal amounts of fat,connective tissues and iron. Normal numbers of both mature and immature bone marrow cells are present.
-no signs of infection are seen.
-no cancer cells such as leukemia,lymphoma or multiple myeloma are seen
-no cancer cells have spread from other cancer sites, such as breast cancer.
(Hematoxylin-Eosin stain, 40x)
The above is an image of a patient with normal bone marrow.
Abnormal results may be due to cancers of the bone marrow (leukemia or Hodgkin’s disease).
The results may detect the cause of anemia (too few red blood cells), abnormal white blood cells, or thrombocytopenia (too few platelets).
If the results obtained are abnormal, it may signifies :
-The cells in the bone marrow do not look normal.
-There are too many or too few bone marrow cells. The bone tissue does not look normal.
-Too much iron or too little iron (iron deficienct anemia) is seen in the bone marrow.
-Signs of infection are seen in the bone marrow.
-Cancer cells, such as leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma, are seen.
-The bone marrow has been replaced by scar tissue
The above is an example of image of a Bone Marrow Biopsy in patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) via Trephine method. It shows the bone marrow heavy infiltrated with lymphocytes.
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